Top 5 Space Phenomena Found in the Universe

Space Phenomena

space phenomena
©livescience

Space phenomena can be defined as naturally occurring events that are caused by the vacuum of space, contained within space or directly result from an event within space.

Here are Top 5 Space Phenomena Found in the universe:

 

Black Hole

A black hole is a place in space where the gravitational pull is so much that even light can not escape it. The gravity of Black Hole is so strong because there is so much mass in a confined volume as a result the matter shrinks to a very tiny space. This phenomenon usually happens to a dying star.

Because the light could not get away, humans cannot see black holes. They are Invisible and can only be seen by special tools and equipment. The stars which are closer to the black holes act differently than the ones which are not, this way the black holes are spotted.
space phenomena
space phenomena

There are countless black holes that are created after the collapse of massive stars. Peppered throughout the Universe, these “stellar-mass” black holes are generally 10 to 24 times as massive as the Sun.

The largest black holes are called “supermassive.” These black holes have masses that are more than 1 million suns together. Scientists have found proof that every large galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center.

 

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Supernova

A supernova is the biggest explosion that humans have ever seen. Each blast is the extremely bright, super-powerful explosion of a star. Supernova is caused by the collapse of a dying massive star.

Massive stars use huge amounts of nuclear fuel at their cores. This produces a lot of energy, which in turn makes the center hot. The resultant heat generates pressure which keeps that star from collapsing.

©scientific American

The star’s gravity tries to squeeze the star into the smallest, tightest ball possible. But the nuclear fuel burning in the star’s core creates strong outward pressure. This outward push resists the inward squeeze of gravity.
However, when a massive star runs out of fuel, it gradually starts to cool off. Hence, the pressure starts to drop and the star’s gravity collapses it into a supernova.

Supernovas are so bright that they can outshine their entire galaxies for a few days or even months. They can be seen across the universe. However, space dust blocks most of the view for the milky way.

 

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Nebula

A nebula is a giant cloud of dust and gas in space. Some nebulae are formed by the gas and dust thrown out by the explosion of a dying star, such as a supernova. Other nebulae are regions where new stars are beginning to form. For this reason, some nebulae are called “star nurseries.”

Most nebulae are huge and span light-years–even millions of light-years across. On average, nebulae occupy trillions and trillions of miles in space. Nebulae exist in the space between the stars—also known as interstellar space. The closest known nebula to Earth is called the Helix Nebula.

©science news

There are multiple types of nebula, most of them fall into the category of Diffuse Nebulae, which means they have no well-defined boundaries. These can be subdivided into two further categories based on their behavior with visible light – “Emission Nebulae” and “Reflection Nebulae”. Dark Nebulae are opaque clouds that do not emit visible radiation and are not illuminated by stars but block light from luminous objects behind them.

 

Pulsar

A pulsar is a highly magnetized rotating neutron star that emits beams of electromagnetic radiation out of its magnetic poles. This radiation can be observed only when a beam of emission is pointing toward Earth and is responsible for the pulsed appearance of emission. Pulsars radiate two steady, narrow beams of light in opposite directions. Although the light from the beam is steady, pulsars appear to flicker because they also spin.
Pulsars belong to a family of objects called neutron stars that form when a star more massive than the sun runs out of fuel in its core and collapses in on itself. This stellar death typically creates a massive explosion called a supernova. The neutron star is the dense nugget of material left over after this explosive death.

space phenomena
©slideshare

The first pulsar was observed on November 28, 1967, by Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish. As of March 22, 2016, scientists know about 2,300 pulsars for which only radio waves have been detected, and about 160 pulsars that radiate gamma rays. Scientists now know of 240-millisecond pulsars, 60 of which radiate gamma rays, Ransom said. These numbers change frequently as new pulsars are discovered.  Quasars this young can reveal information about how galaxies evolved over time.

 

Quasar

Quasar, an astronomical object of very high luminosity found in the centers of some galaxies and powered by gas spiraling at high velocity into an extremely large black hole. The brightest quasars can outshine all of the stars in the galaxies in which they reside, which makes them visible even at distances of billions of light-years. Quasars are among the most distant and luminous objects known.
Scientists state that the tiny, point-like glimmers are actually signals from galactic nuclei outshining their host galaxies. Quasars live only in galaxies with supermassive black holes.

space phenomena

The number density of quasars increases dramatically with redshift, which translates through Hubble’s law to more quasars at larger distances. Because of the finite speed of light, when quasars are observed at great distances, they are observed as they were in the distant past. Thus, the increasing density of quasars with distance means that they were more common in the past than they are now.

Quasars are found over a very broad range of distances, and quasar discovery surveys have demonstrated that quasar activity was more common in the distant past. The peak epoch of quasar activity was approximately 10 billion years ago. The most distant known quasar is ULAS J1342+0928 at redshift z = 7.54; light observed from this quasar was emitted when the universe was only 690 million years old.

 

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